Posts for: February, 2012
For adults with a reasonably well fitting bite, but mild to moderate crowding or spaces between your teeth, clear orthodontic aligners can be an ideal solution for straightening your teeth. This is why we offer this treatment option to our patients experiencing these issues. However, for those of you who are unfamiliar with what they are or how they work, this will give you a brief understanding.
Clear orthodontic aligners consist of a series of clear “trays” that fit snuggly over all teeth to slowly shift them into alignment. Patients are typically required to wear them 20 hours per day for about 2 weeks before progressing to the next tray. With each new tray, you are one step closer to achieving your goal of perfectly aligned teeth. The entire process usually lasts 6-18 months depending on how much movement is required to achieve the goals.
Each aligner is individually made from very precise molds of the patient's teeth to ensure proper fit. And we map out the entire alignment process using computer generation from each patient's initial molds so that we can identify the number of trays required. But best of all, clear orthodontic aligners are perfectly smooth with no rough edges like traditional braces, and you can remove them for eating, brushing, and flossing teeth as well as for brief social events.
We know from research extending back to the 1930s that very small amounts of fluoride in drinking water can significantly reduce dental caries (cavities) with no negative health effects. Fluoridated water is currently available to 70% of all Americans. However, we have also learned that excess fluoride from combined sources can result in staining of teeth called “fluorosis.”
What is the optimum fluoride concentration for healthy teeth?
A fluoride concentration of about 0.7-1.20 milligrams per liter (mg/L), or .7 to 1.2 ppm (parts per million), in the water supply seems to be optimum for dental health without causing negative effects. This concentration is about the same as a grain of salt in a gallon of water. An amount of 1 ppm was originally considered the safe standard, but since today Americans have access to more sources of fluoride than they did when water fluoridation was first introduced, the recommended amount has been reduced to .7 mg/L or .7 ppm.
The crucial amount to measure is the quantity of fluoride that is swallowed. Generally, the optimal level of fluoride per day from all sources is thought to be about .06 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, or about a sixth of the weight of a grain of salt for every two pounds of body weight.
It is probably not possible to calculate the precise amount of fluoride each person ingests per day, because the amount depends on more than just the amount of tapwater you drink. Bottled waters, soft drinks and juices also contain fluoride. Breast milk and cow's milk are very low in fluoride, but infant formulas may contain higher levels. Foods found to have high fluoride content include teas, dry infant cereals and processed chicken, fish and seafood products. Toothpaste can contribute to a child's total fluoride intake if the child swallows it.
What are the effects of too much fluoride?
Dental fluorosis produces a “mottling” of the outer coating of the tooth, the enamel. Mottling may show as staining ranging from small white striations to stained pitting and severe browning of the enamel surface.
The first six to eight years of life is the most risky time for development of dental fluorosis. Parents need to monitor their children to make sure they use small amounts of fluoride toothpaste (an amount the size of a pea on the brush is recommended). Watch for white spots on the enamel (hard outside coating) of your child's teeth. White spots from fluorosis mean it is time to pay attention to how much fluoride your child is getting from various sources, and to cut back on the total. You want fluoride's protection against cavities for your child's teeth, without the unsightliness of dental fluorosis from too much fluoride.
Contact us today to schedule an appointment to discuss your questions about fluoride. You can also learn more by reading the Dear Doctor magazine articles “Fluoride & Fluoridation in Dentistry” and “New Fluoride Recommendations.”